Masculinity Ideologies of Adult Pakistani Men and Women

  • Sara Imtiaz National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
  • Anila Kamal
Keywords: Keywords. Gender differences, masculinity ideologies, Pakistani adults, patriarchy



Background. Masculinity related ideologies are rooted in most cultures and Pakistan is not different, however not much is known about these ideologies in recent times. This study investigated masculinity ideologies in adult men and women of Pakistan.

Method. In across-sectional design,a convenient sample of 268 men and 173 women (N = 441)was taken that ranged in age from 19 to 51 (M = 29.21, SD = 5.44) years. We used Masculinity Ideologies Scale (Imtiaz& Kamal, 2023) that measures four aspects of masculinity includingmale privilege and power, traditional roles and responsibilities, avoiding effeminacy, and restricted emotionality as subscales.

Results. Results revealed that men endorsed significantly greater traditional masculinity ideologies than women and particularly significantly moremale privilegeand power and restricted emotionality than women; however, no significant differences were found for traditional roles and responsibilities and avoiding effeminacy across genders.

Conclusion. We discuss masculinity in a cultural context where patriarchy prevails, where male masculinity is held as a symbol of authority.

Keywords. Gender differences, masculinity ideologies, Pakistani adults, patriarchy


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